If you want to practice the theory with tasks corresponding to the official test, practice at teoriprove.com
The driver's license
- Practice driving discusses the regulations, requirements and driving license classes.
- Illegal practice driving can be punished with a suspension period.
- To practice driving, you must be 16 years old, have completed a basic traffic course, have identification and be fit.
- If you are over 25 or already have another driver's licence, you do not need a basic traffic course, but driving in the dark and the first aid section are required before driving up.
- The basic traffic course consists of 17 hours of compulsory training.
- Fitness means being awake, healthy, alert and not under the influence of alcohol, other drugs or drugs that are dangerous to traffic.
- Companions are required during practice driving, and they must be over 25 years of age, have had a valid driving license for class B continuously for the past 5 years, and be fit.
- The companion is considered the responsible driver of the car during practice driving.
- During practice driving, the car must be marked with a red L on a white background, and have an extra mirror on the companion's side.
- Practice driving is permitted throughout the country, provided that it is not a danger or an unnecessary inconvenience to other traffic.
- Requirements for obtaining a driver's license include age, health and education.
- The theory test can be taken no earlier than 6 months before you turn 18, while the driving test can only be completed once you have turned 18.
- When applying for a driving license for class B, it is necessary to fill in a self-declaration and complete a simple vision test at the traffic station before the theory test.
- Compulsory training must be completed before the start-up. Apply for a driver's license before taking the theory test on the Norwegian Public Roads Administration's website. Note that if you drive up in a car with an automatic transmission, you will get a note on your driver's license showing that you are only entitled to drive a car with an automatic transmission.
- If you have been given a curfew by the police, you cannot drive up. The blocking period lasts from the time you turn 18. You are not allowed to practice driving if you have a suspension period, unless you get special permission from the police.
- When you get your driver's license, you start with a two-year probationary period. If you have your driving license revoked during the probationary period, you must take both the theory test and the driving test again. During the probationary period, you get twice as many points for traffic violations.
- In Norway, there is a dot loading system, where anyone who gets eight or more points during a three-year period loses their driving license for at least 6 months. Drivers with a trial period for driving license in class B must be registered with double the number of points for each offense committed during the trial period.
- In the theory test, you must prove that you have the necessary knowledge to drive safely. Remember to be well prepared, read the assignment carefully and use your time well.
- On the drive-up, you must prove that you can drive a car in a responsible and safe manner. In order to prepare yourself well, it is important to do a lot of training, think out loud and practice safety checks.
Driving license classes
Driving license classes in Norway give different rights to drive different types of vehicles. Here is an overview of what the various classes give a driving license for:
- Class B driver's license gives the international right to drive vehicles with a maximum permissible total weight of 3,500 kg and a maximum of 8 passengers, a car with a trailer of a maximum of 750 kg, a four-wheel motorcycle and a moped.
- In Norway, class B also gives you the right to drive motorized equipment, such as a tractor, with a maximum permissible total weight of 3,500 kg. You can also drive a tracked vehicle with or without a trailer sled, and a trailer for a four-wheel motorcycle with a displacement of over 125 cm³, when the permissible total weight of the trailer is no more than 750 kg.
- Permissible total weight is the maximum permissible weight that your vehicle can have. It is stated in the registration card.
- Motor equipment can be described as mobile machines/self-propelled work equipment, which have wheels and/or belts when the machine or equipment separates from other motor vehicles for the transport of goods or people, or a tractor.
- Class A, A1 and A2 give the right to drive a motorcycle.
- Class AM entitles you to drive a moped.
- Class C gives the right to drive a truck.
- Class C1 gives the right to drive a light truck.
- Class D gives the right to drive a bus.
- Class D1 gives the right to drive a minibus.
- Class E gives the right to drive a trailer, for example CE which is a truck with a trailer.
- Class S gives the right to drive a snowmobile.
- Class T gives the right to drive a tractor.
Various aspects of the car's technical condition are crucial for safety and legality while driving. Here are important points about the car's safe and legal condition, as well as some examples of safety checks and the importance of gauges and warning lights:
- You are responsible for ensuring that the car is in proper condition and in compliance with regulations, as stated in the Road Traffic Act.
- Statutory condition means that the car meets all technical requirements set by various rules and regulations.
- Good condition means in practice that the car is road-safe, both for the driver, passengers and other road users.
- An example is that if the car loses a front light, it is no longer in legal condition, but may be in safe condition if it is light outside. When it gets dark, it is no longer in a safe condition and driving should be avoided.
- Safety checks can be carried out to check the individual parts of the car. In the event of changes in driving characteristics or unusual noises while driving, you should investigate further or contact a workshop.
- The car's dashboard contains instruments that indicate speed, rpm, engine temperature and fuel level, as well as warning lights for various systems. You should know what the various lights indicate and what to do when they light up.
- If the warning lights are working properly, they will all light up when you start the engine, and will go out automatically after a few seconds.
- RPM shows how many revolutions the engine makes in one minute.
Brakes and steering
Cars are equipped with several components that contribute to the braking system, including foot brake, parking brake, brake circuits, brake booster, brake fluid and anti-lock braking system (ABS).
- The foot brake is operated with a brake pedal and must work fully with one application, with a stronger braking effect the further the brakes are applied. The pedal must be able to withstand a pressure of at least 100 kp.
- The parking brake ensures that the car does not roll when it is parked. It is operated with a handbrake or a switch between the front seats. Some newer cars have an automatic parking brake.
- Cars have at least two independent brake circuits to ensure that the car still has brakes if one of the circuits is destroyed.
- The brake power amplifier amplifies the force you apply to the brake pedal, so that the brake gets extra power. If it does not work, press harder on the brake to achieve sufficient braking power.
- The brake fluid activates the brakes when the pedal is used. The brake fluid level can be checked by a pressure test or by looking at the brake fluid reservoir in the engine compartment.
- The anti-lock braking system (ABS) prevents the wheels from locking up under heavy braking, allowing the driver to steer while braking at full power. If the ABS fails, it is still safe to drive, but the car is no longer in legal condition.
- In the event of a brake failure, a warning lamp will light up. If the light is still on after the handbrake is released, there may be a fault in the brake system. In the event of a fault in the ABS system, another warning lamp will light up.
Steering is a critical component for a vehicle's road safety. Here are the main elements and requirements for the steering system of a car:
- Power steering amplifies the force applied to the steering wheel to facilitate turning of the wheels. Even if the power steering fails, the car remains in safe condition, but it becomes harder to steer.
- The car must be directional, which means that it must drive in the direction you steer it without pulling to one side or another. Different air pressures in the tires or errors in the adjustment can lead to the car not being directionally stable.
- Self-righting functionality means that the car will right itself if you let go of the steering wheel while driving in a corner. This can be checked with a practical test at low speed.
- The dead play on the steering wheel should not be more than 3 cm, which means that the wheels should start turning when you have turned the steering wheel 3 cm to one side.
- Good condition means that the vehicle is safe for traffic. The vehicle may be in good condition even if it is not in legal condition.
- Air pressure in the tires affects the road grip. Correct air pressure ensures an optimal contact surface for good grip and environmentally friendly driving.
- Electronic stability control (ESP) helps with precise steering and traction. A constantly lit ESP warning light indicates a fault in the system.
Tires and Wheels
Understanding the various aspects of your car's tires and wheels is essential for safe driving and optimal vehicle performance.
- It is the driver's responsibility to ensure that the car has tires that are suitable for driving and are in good condition.
- Switching between winter tires and summer tires requires personal judgment based on driving conditions and terrain.
- Tires and rims must be inspected for damage such as tears, bubbles, blisters and dents. Uneven wear may indicate incorrect air pressure or misalignment.
- The assembly consists of the front wheels, including the axle, suspension, steering mechanism, brakes, suspension, etc.
- It is important to check the tyre's dimensions and load-bearing capacity against what is stated in the car's registration card.
- Tire labeling provides information about the tire's width, height, type, rim diameter and characteristics such as winter driving.
- The air pressure affects the road grip. Correct air pressure provides optimum contact surface, grip and fuel efficiency.
- Air pressure can be checked via the car's fuel cap, door frame, instruction booklet, or tire pressure monitoring for newer models.
- The wear pattern on the tire's tread can indicate the air pressure in the tire.
- Pattern depth ensures road grip. The requirement is at least 3 mm for winter tires and at least 1.6 mm for summer tires.
- During the winter period, there is a requirement for a tread depth of at least 3 mm, and studded tires are permitted.
- Studded tires provide better grip on slippery roads, but can wear out on the road and burden the environment. In some cities, a fee is required for use.
- All four wheels must have studded tires if they are in use.
- During the summer period, there is a requirement for a tread depth of at least 1.6 mm, and studded tires are not permitted unless the road requires it.
Light and visibility in the car
Understanding light and visibility is critical to safe driving. The following points provide an overview of the most important elements.
- Driving lights and low beams are mandatory in Norway, even during the day, and must make you visible to other road users.
- The dipped beam must shine white or yellow, at least 40 meters ahead, and the right dipped beam must shine slightly longer than the left.
- High beams must shine white or yellow, at least 100 meters in front of the car, and are most often used on roads without street lights.
- Bending and fog lights at the front of the car must light up white or yellow, and those at the back must light up red. Fog lights are useful in poor visibility, but should not be used in clear weather to avoid dazzling other road users.
- The car must have orange direction lights on each corner, and emergency signal lights are when all four indicators flash at the same time, used to make the car extra visible during emergency stops or in situations that require attention.
- The car's rear lights must be red, and the brake lights must also be red, which light up when you step on the brakes to signal that you are slowing down.
- Parking lights must be white and license plate lights must be white and must automatically illuminate the car's license plates when the engine is running.
- Reversing lights are white or yellow lights at the back of the car, which make it easier to see when you are reversing.
- The windscreen wipers wash dust and dirt from the windows, and provide better visibility when it rains. In the event of heavy rain or airborne dust, it is unsafe to drive without working wipers.
- Windscreen washer fluid is required when there is dust or mud on the window, as the wipers alone are not sufficient.
Engine and battery
In this section we discuss some important aspects of your car's engine and battery, including the importance of regular maintenance, the functions of various components and warning signs to look out for.
- The engine produces the power that drives the car, and can use either fuel or electricity. Engine maintenance is critical to avoid expensive repairs.
- Engine oil lubricates the engine, and driving without it can destroy the engine. You can check the oil level with the dipstick available under the hood.
- An oil dipstick is a device used to check the oil level in the engine. It has minimum and maximum level markings.
- The car's battery supplies power to all the electrical functions in the car, including lights, electric windows, heating and windscreen wipers. The battery is rechargeable and receives power from the alternator when the engine is running.
- The alternator produces electricity when the engine is running and helps keep the battery charged.
- Jump leads are used when the battery is empty and the car needs to start. Correct sequence and procedures must be followed to avoid injury.
- Warning lights in the car indicate various conditions and problems with the engine and battery. Some of these include engine temperature, oil pressure, battery charge and general engine faults.
- The engine temperature should normally be between 80 and 92 degrees for optimal combustion of fuel.
- Coolant is used to prevent the engine from overheating and to prevent the engine's cooling system from freezing in cold weather.
- The oil pressure in the engine should be maintained within a certain range to prevent the engine from breaking down.
Safety in the car
Safety in a car is divided into two forms - active and passive safety. Active safety is equipment or structures that help you to act correctly and to prevent accidents, for example ABS brakes and anti-skid. Passive safety is equipment or structures that protect in the event of accidents, such as airbags and seat belts. In addition, it is important to have the correct safety equipment and technical maintenance of the car.
- Active safety includes equipment such as ABS brakes and anti-skid, structures that help prevent accidents.
- Passive safety involves equipment such as airbags and seat belts, which are designed to protect those in the car and other road users in the event of an accident.
- Electronic stability control (ESP), also known as anti-skid, helps the driver maintain control of the car.
- An airbag, also known as an airbag, is a device that supplements the seat belts by inflating a cushion when a sensor detects a collision.
- It is mandatory to have at least one CE-approved reflective vest and a warning triangle in the car. The reflective vest must be easily accessible from the driver's seat.
- In the event of an emergency, you must put on the reflective vest before getting out of the car, and mount the warning triangle in a safe place.
- It is compulsory to wear a seat belt in a car, and both the driver and passengers can be punished for not wearing a seat belt.
- The seat belt must be in good condition and the belt tensioner must work correctly.
- Airbags are standard on all newer cars. If the airbag light does not go out, or starts to light up while driving, there may be a fault with the airbags.
- If the car has an airbag, it is forbidden to have a rear-facing child seat in the front seat, unless the airbag can be switched off.
- CE-approved means that the product is considered to meet requirements from the authorities that are given in a directive or regulation.
Choosing a car: Important factors to consider
There are many elements to consider when choosing a car. This includes type of fuel, transmission system, ownership, and adaptation to your individual needs and preferences.
- Fuel type : Electric car, fossil car or hybrid car. Consider environmental impact, cost, availability and usage needs.
- Electric car or fossil car : What pays off for you, financially and in terms of the environment?
- Automatic or manual transmission : If you choose a fossil fuel car, consider whether you want to drive with automatic transmission or manual transmission.
- Owning or renting : Consider whether you need a car on a daily basis, or whether it will do to borrow or rent a car from time to time. And if you are going to have a permanent car, is leasing or buying a car best?
- Fossil car : These are fuel efficient and have a longer range, but they pollute more and fuel costs are increasing.
- Electric car : They are cheaper to operate and receive a number of tax exemptions, but currently have varying access to charging stations and partly a short range.
- Manual and automatic transmissions : Automatic transmissions are more common now and can be easier for beginners. Manual transmission can take longer to learn and can be more challenging in city driving.
- Run-up : If you take the run-up in an automatic transmission car, you will not be allowed to drive a manual transmission car without further testing.
Driver support systems and New Technology Challenges
ABS brakes, electronic stability control and anti-spin are standard in modern cars, and new driver assistance systems are constantly being developed to target self-driving cars. But technology also brings new challenges that we must be aware of.
- Adaptive Cruise Control - The car measures the distance to the driver in front and adjusts the speed using radar/laser technology.
- Lane holder - The system registers the markings in the road with a digital camera and keeps the car correctly positioned in the lane with the help of small steering movements.
- Parking assistant - Cameras in the car measure whether it is possible to place the car in a hatch or in a parking space, and the car itself does the work with the steering wheel, accelerator and brake.
- Snow and road markings - The car's lane holder cannot read the road markings in snowy weather, so the driver still has to pay close attention.
- Speed limit - The car can read speed limit signs, but driving or visibility may not be good enough to follow the signs.
- Who is driving - The car can try to correct an evasive maneuver made by the driver, which can create conflicts.
Trailer, weight and load
Understanding the correct use of trailers and understanding important weight restrictions is essential for safe and legal driving. This summary covers the most important points.
- With a class B driving licence, you can tow a trailer with a permissible total weight of up to 750 kg, with a total weight of car and trailer of 4250 kg. You can also tow a heavier trailer, as long as the total weight of car and trailer does not exceed 3500 kg.
- If you want to tow a trailer with a higher total weight, you can extend your driving license to class B code 96 or class BE.
- The permitted total weight for a trailer, i.e. car and trailer together, is 4,250 kg if the trailer weighs 750 kg or less, and 3,500 kg if the trailer weighs more than 750 kg.
- You can find the car's limitations for trailer weight and trailer weight, as well as the current weight, in the vehicle registration card.
- The coupling load, which is the weight the trailer places on the trailer hitch, must not exceed the limitations in the vehicle license.
- When driving with a trailer, you must be aware of the weight restrictions and do not exceed the permitted total weight.
- The trailer must be equipped with at least two red, triangular reflectors at the rear, and all lights on the trailer must work properly.
- With a trailer, you cannot drive faster than 80 km/h, unless the trailer or caravan has a Tempo 100 approval, in which case you can drive up to 100 km/h.
- As a driver, you are responsible for ensuring that the load is secured and placed in a safe manner.
- Marking of protruding loads is required if the load protrudes more than 1 meter from the vehicle.
About securing and positioning goods when driving
In the context of driving, it is important to handle goods, loose objects and identification marks correctly. This contributes to safe and responsible driving. Here are some key points:
- Goods must be secured and placed so that they neither cause damage, danger, drag on the road, fall off the vehicle nor generate unnecessary noise.
- Goods must be placed in such a way that visibility and maneuvering are not obstructed, and neither the required light nor identification must be covered.
- Goods must not extend more than 15 cm beyond the sides of the vehicle or more than 1 meter in front of the vehicle.
- An ill-placed soda can can turn into a deadly projectile in case of emergency braking at high speed. It is therefore important to properly secure all loose objects.
- Protruding goods must be marked with alternating red and white, where the red material must be light reflective, and have a visible area of at least 250 cm² from all sides.
- When transporting a bicycle, the bicycle must be mounted so that the vehicle, including the bicycle, is no wider than 180 cm. If the bicycle hides the car's lights or registration plate, you must use a light beam clearly marked with the car's registration number.
- Overloading can negatively affect the car's driving characteristics and can be downright dangerous. This leads, among other things, to poorer driving characteristics, longer braking distances, and a possible danger of dazzling other motorists.
- Directional stability is the vehicle's ability to keep a straight course and not drift to one side.
The runtime process and its components
This section summarizes the key aspects of the driving process, including sensing, perception, decision making and action, and how these processes affect our ability to drive safely and efficiently.
- You sense – Information is received by the eye, but it has not yet been processed by the brain.
- You perceive what you have sensed - The brain recognizes what you see and what is happening.
- You decide what to do - You consider various solutions for further action and choose.
- You act - You implement what you have decided to do.
- The sense of sight is of the greatest importance when you drive, accounting for almost 90% of the sensory impressions.
- Central vision or sharp vision, looks ahead with a visual angle of approx. 3–5 degrees, detects details, and works best in good light.
- Side vision gives a viewing angle of almost 180 degrees when we are standing still, perceiving movement, light changes, the surroundings, shadows and silhouettes.
- Fixation, or focusing on a point, takes 2-3 tenths of a second. Unnecessary fixation can remove important attention from the traffic situation.
- Perception involves interpreting and understanding the sensory impressions you get in the traffic situation, and this can be influenced by many factors, including the complexity of the situation and available experience.
- Once you have perceived the situation, the brain considers various options for further action.
- Decisions are often based on past experiences, and the more experience you have, the faster and more efficiently you can make decisions.
- Performing actions can vary in degree of difficulty, depending on the situation and conditions, such as speed and road conditions.
- To become a skilled driver, it is important to practice automated actions. This frees up cognitive capacity for monitoring the traffic and avoiding dangerous situations.
- Different cars can react differently to actions, and factors such as weight, engine power and steering systems will also affect how the car responds to your actions.
Assessment of speed and distance
Humans' ability to judge speed and distance is not always accurate, which can lead to potential hazards on the road. This challenge is most prominent in relation to our assessments of other vehicles and our own speed.
- Research indicates that we often assume that the distance to oncoming vehicles is longer than it actually is, which is important to remember when overtaking and turning.
- Judging the speed of oncoming vehicles can be difficult and we tend to think they are moving slower than they actually are. At distances over 300 metres, it may be impossible to distinguish between a car driving slowly and one driving at 80 km/h.
- Speed blindness can occur when we drive faster than we are aware of. Prolonged high speed, especially on wide, clear roads with monotonous landscapes, can trick the brain into thinking that the speed is lower than it actually is.
- Speed blindness can also be affected by low noise levels or loud music, which can dampen the perception of the real speed.
- Prevention of speed blindness can be achieved by checking your own speed on the speedometer, slowing down firmly to a new speed when the speed limit changes and checking your speed by looking to the side.
- Increased speed can lead to a narrower field of vision, a phenomenon known as tunnel vision.
Fit to drive
Fitness to drive is essential for road safety. It is affected by various factors such as illness, fatigue, stress, drugs and medication, and it is important to evaluate your fitness before driving.
- Aptitude is about your ability to perceive the traffic situation correctly and act in time.
- Traffic-dangerous drugs have a red warning triangle on the package.
- If you are tired, ill, stressed or under the influence, you may overlook important information in traffic and make the wrong decisions.
- The Road Traffic Act states that you must not drive if you are unable to. It is also important for cyclists and other road users.
- The alcohol limit in Norway is 0.2. Alcohol burns at 0.10–0.15 parts per thousand per hour. The risk of accidents increases significantly with blood alcohol levels above 1.5.
- Narcotic substances and dangerous drugs are incompatible with driving. They were a contributing factor to 24% of fatal accidents on Norwegian roads in 2012.
- Certain professional groups have strict alcohol rules, such as professional drivers who are obliged to abstain both during and 8 hours before work.
- Fatigue can be just as harmful as the influence of alcohol. It is a contributing factor in 15% of traffic fatalities.
- Common illnesses such as colds and headaches can affect concentration and make it difficult to drive safely.
- Distractions such as talking on the phone, checking the mobile phone, fiddling with music, eating, drinking, restless children and using GPS can be dangerous in traffic.
Reaction time and inattention time
Reaction time is important for safe driving. It is the time it takes from when you discover a danger to when you act. This can be affected by many factors, including the traffic situation, visibility, experience, distractions, and conditions such as fatigue or intoxication. The inattention time is the time it takes to notice a potential danger. If one is not concentrating, it may take longer to detect the danger.
- The reaction time consists of sensing, understanding and deciding on action.
- Normal reaction time is approx. one second, but can increase significantly depending on the situation.
- The inattention time is the time it takes to notice a potential danger.
- In complex traffic situations or when you are not concentrating, the time of inattention may be longer.
- For example: Driving at 80 km/h, if the inattention time and the reaction time are both 1.5 seconds, you move approx. 66 meters before you decide how to act.
The car's condition and use
It is important to know that both before and during driving, you are responsible for ensuring that the car is in safe and legal condition. At the same time, it is also your duty to ensure that the vehicle is prepared for periodic vehicle inspection, known as EU inspection.
- A safe condition means that the vehicle is road-safe, such as working brakes and brake lights.
- Regulatory condition means that the vehicle meets the requirements of the vehicle regulations, such as lights, tire pressure and mirrors.
- Fitness means that you are awake, healthy, alert and not under the influence of alcohol or other drugs.
- It is your responsibility to check the deadline for the next EU control. This can be done by entering the car's registration number at Vegvesen.no.
- If you lend your car, you are responsible for ensuring that it is in good condition and that the borrower has a valid driving licence.
- The driver is responsible for ensuring that all children under the age of 15 use the correct safety equipment (child seats and seat belts) correctly, based on the child's age, weight and height.
- When towing, there are special rules: only one motor vehicle can be towed at a time, the car being towed must be able to brake safely, towing ropes or other equipment must be clearly marked, and you must have test plates if the car does not have plates.
Registration and Change of Ownership of Vehicles
This is an overview of the most important aspects of vehicle registration and change of ownership in Norway.
- Passenger cars and trailers must be registered in order to be used, this is done at a traffic station. Traffic insurance and paid tolls and fees are required for registration.
- Vehicles are assigned a license plate and registration card upon registration.
- The vehicle card is divided into two: Part 1, which must be carried when driving, and Part 2, which must be kept separately and is needed when selling the vehicle.
- Traffic insurance, also known as liability insurance, is required on almost all vehicles. The insurance covers damage to other people and their property, as well as damage to yourself in the event of accidents. However, it does not cover damage to own property.
- When buying or selling a car, the Norwegian Public Roads Administration must be informed of the new owner. The change of ownership must be reported within three days after it has taken place.
- The seller is responsible for submitting the sales notification. Without this, future fees/claims will go to the previous owner.
- The sales notice can be delivered digitally or on paper. In the case of digital delivery, both buyer and seller must use the online service, and the seller must identify himself.
- Part 2 of the carriage card can be used as a sales notification if the online service is not used.
- The notice of sale must be signed by both buyer and seller. In the case of digital submission, both must approve the sales notification.
- When the sale notice has been sent and registered, the new owner will receive a letter about further requirements and measures.
- The vehicle cannot be used by the new owner until a new vehicle license has been received.
Financial responsibility and insurance when driving
Here is a brief overview of key factors related to financial responsibility and insurance requirements when driving a vehicle.
- Drivers are financially responsible for damage caused by the vehicle they are driving, regardless of whether the damage is due to accident or carelessness.
- All cars must have traffic insurance (often called liability insurance) to ensure that the injured party receives compensation.
- Traffic insurance covers damage to other people, other vehicles (if the driver of the other vehicle is not responsible for the damage), other people's property and the driver himself. It does not cover damage to your own car.
- In order to insure against damage to your own car, vehicle damage insurance (also called comprehensive) must be taken out.
- If the insurance company has to pay out compensation for damages caused by you, they can demand repayment, which is called recourse.
- The insurance company can claim recourse if you caused the damage intentionally or were very careless, were under the influence of alcohol or other drugs, had stolen the car or used it in connection with a crime, drove without a valid driver's license, or practiced driving illegally.
- Passengers in the car can also have their compensation reduced or lose their right to compensation if, for example, they knew the car was stolen.
Sanctions for Violation of Traffic Rules
Here is an overview of the sanctions that can be imposed for violations of traffic legislation in Norway.
- As a driver, it is your responsibility to know and comply with all relevant laws and regulations.
- The authorities can respond to violations with verbal warnings, fees, simplified orders, fines and prison terms, points and confiscation of the driver's license, as well as sanctions related to the vehicle such as de-signing, prohibition of use, impoundment, detention and deposit in the vehicle.
- A fee is not a punitive action and can be given for less serious violations such as failure to use a seat belt, driving with tires with too little tread depth, overloading, or if the driver's license is left behind at home.
- A simplified notice can be imposed for various traffic offences, such as speeding, driving in violation of certain traffic signs/road markings, and driving against a red light.
- A lien on the vehicle means that someone can demand that you sell the vehicle to pay what you owe.
- Driving with a blood alcohol level above 0.2 is illegal in Norway. Penalties vary depending on the concentration of alcohol in the blood, and can include fines, prison terms, and loss of driving licence.
- It is forbidden to consume alcohol or other drugs in the first six hours after an accident or other incident that may lead to a police investigation.
- Professional drivers are subject to the law on mandatory abstinence, which means that they must not consume alcohol 8 hours before work or during work.
- You can be convicted of driving under the influence with an alcohol concentration below 0.2 per thousand if you have shown great carelessness while driving.
- Norway has a penalty charge system where certain violations result in a penalty charge. Eight points or more within 3 years results in the loss of the driving license for at least 6 months. During the trial period, double the number of points is recorded for each infringement.
The traffic system and the Traffic Rules
It is a set of rules and laws that regulate traffic to prevent chaos and danger on the roads. They include general and specific rules on behavior in traffic, vehicle requirements, road environment requirements and traffic management requirements.
- Regulation of traffic: This is the biggest topic in class B. It covers everything within the traffic system - everything from signs, traffic markings, laws and regulations for traffic.
- Traffic management: The traffic rules and the Road Traffic Act provide guidelines for driving and behavior in traffic.
- Important laws and regulations: Important matters such as giving way, stopping and parking, speed, changing lanes, use of lights and signals are governed by several different laws and regulations, especially the Road Traffic Act and the traffic regulations.
- The Road Traffic Act: It contains many important provisions that regulate our behavior in traffic, including "Basic rules for traffic", the main provision on behavior in traffic. The provisions of the Road Traffic Act apply to all motor vehicle traffic in Norway, including cyclists and other road users on roads where cars or other motor vehicles are normally driven. The Act also has provisions on speed, intoxication, duties in the event of a traffic accident, practice driving, infringements and penalties.
- The traffic rules: Formally known as "Regulations on driving and walking traffic", they contain provisions on behavior in traffic. The traffic rules apply on public or private roads, streets or spaces open to public traffic. They have provisions on the use of the roadway, the position of the vehicle in the roadway, changing lanes, the obligation to give way, duties towards pedestrians, reversing and turning, special speed regulations, stopping and parking, and more.
- Motor vehicle: This is a collective term for all vehicles that are propelled by their own engine, such as cars, mopeds, tractors, motorized lawnmowers and stationary bikes such as Segways. An electric bicycle is not defined as a motor vehicle.
- The basic rule for traffic: Section 3 of the Road Traffic Act lays the foundation for all behavior in traffic. The basic rule states that everyone must travel with consideration, caution and caution so that no danger or damage can occur, and so that other traffic is not unnecessarily obstructed or disturbed. This includes being considerate - taking into account the needs of other road users, being alert - being concentrated and attentive, and careful - driving in a way that reduces the risk of accidents and injuries.
Road and road markings
The road is an important part of the traffic system, and road markings are essential to distinguish between different parts of the road and to regulate the traffic rules.
- Longitudinal markings divide the carriageway into lanes or indicate the outer edge of the carriageway.
- Transverse markings are used to mark stop lines, yield lines and pedestrian lanes.
- Yellow markings distinguish between traffic in the opposite direction.
- White markings differentiate between traffic in the same direction.
- Definitions of road components such as carriageway, lane, road shoulders, cycle lanes, medians, pavements, footpaths and cycle paths are included in the traffic rules.
- Lane line, warning line, combined lines, barrier line, barrier area and arrows are important parts of the road markings in the middle of the carriageway.
- Dividing line, edge line (solid and dashed) are important parts of road markings on the side of the carriageway.
- Transverse road markings include a yield line that marks the stopping point for the obligation to give way at an intersection.
To ensure safe and efficient driving, it is important to have a good knowledge of different groups of signs and their meaning. Knowledge of signs is also thoroughly tested in the official theory test.
- Danger signs warn of danger on a stretch, for example sharp bends, slippery road surfaces, uneven roads, or animals on the road. These signs are shaped with a red triangle and a white background. They may have additional information in the form of sub-labels.
- Obligation to yield and right-of-way signs regulate the obligation to give way at intersections or on a stretch of road. These signs have varying designs based on their function.
- Prohibition signs prohibit certain actions on a stretch of road or place, or revoke a prohibition. These are round with a red border and a white base colour.
- Mandatory signs give orders for a stretch of road or a place, such as which lane to use or which direction you can drive at an intersection. These are round with a blue base colour.
- Information signs indicate that special rules, prohibitions and orders apply or cease to apply for a road section or place.
- Service signs provide information about emergency assistance, road service, sights and more.
- Directional signs provide information about place names, businesses, road routes, choice of lane, choice of road and distance to destination.
- Sub-signs provide further clarification, expansion, completion or limitation of the main sign's meaning or area of validity.
- Marking signs inform about the further course of the road or about obstacles on or near the carriageway.
Traffic lights and signals
It is important to understand the meaning of different traffic lights and signals in order to navigate traffic safely. They control the flow and ensure the safety of all road users.
- Green light: Allows passage if the road is clear.
- Yellow light: Alerts of upcoming red light; you must stop if it is safe.
- Red light: No passing.
- Red light together with yellow light: Warns of imminent green light.
- Flashing yellow light or no light: The traffic light is out of order, general right-of-way rules apply.
- Pedestrian signal: Green or red man is displayed; green allows crossing, red prohibits the start of crossing.
- Arrow signal: Applies to those who want to drive in the direction of the arrow.
- Lane signal: Red cross indicates prohibition, green arrow allows use of the lane, yellow arrow warns of upcoming lane closure.
- Flashing signal in front of railway: Red flashing signal requires stopping, white flashing signal allows passage.
- Flashing light arrow: Marks which side to pass, often used in roadworks.
- Signal for public transport: 'S' stands for stop, corresponds to a red light in a normal traffic light.
Police and traffic control
In order to ensure a safe and efficient flow of traffic, it may be necessary to manually regulate the traffic, either in the event of a traffic accident, roadworks, or through checks carried out by the police, the Customs Service or the National Road Administration. It is important to know how different authorities can affect traffic and what your duties are in a traffic situation.
- The police direct traffic in the event of a traffic accident or when the flow of traffic stops, and also carry out various types of checks such as speed control, use of seat belts and blood alcohol checks.
- Customs can flag down road users for checks, usually at border crossings, to check that you are not carrying contraband and that the car's papers are in order.
- The Norwegian Public Roads Administration carries out technical checks, seat belt use and similar checks.
- During roadworks, there will often be people directing traffic past the area in question, with orange or other luminous clothing and lights to direct traffic.
- You are obliged to stop at traffic controls, follow instructions, present required documents and comply with the requirements set.
- If there is a lot of traffic, queues can occur, which affects the flow of traffic, especially during rush hour.
- The police's instructions must be followed at a traffic light, even if they go against traffic rules, signs and traffic lights.
- A policeman's position and hand movements give signals to road users, similar to traffic lights. If the policeman is facing you, this is like a green light. An arm in the air means the same as a yellow light, and if the policeman stands with his body turned towards or away from you, this is considered a red light.
The pyramid of authorities in traffic
To navigate safely and efficiently in traffic, it is important to understand the hierarchy between traffic rules, road markings, signage and traffic lights - known as the "authority pyramid". This pyramid gives you guidance on which instructions to follow when they conflict with each other.
- At the top of the authority pyramid is the police. If a policeman shows you to drive, you must follow these instructions regardless of what the yield signs or traffic lights show.
- Below the police on the pyramid are traffic lights. These precede any yield signs. If there is a green light at a yield sign, you must follow the light regulation. If the traffic lights are out of order, you must follow the yield sign.
- Below traffic lights are signs and road markings. A right-of-way sign showing that you have a right-of-way to traffic on a crossing road must be followed even if general right-of-way rules state that traffic from the left has a right-of-way.
- At the bottom of the authority pyramid are the traffic rules and other relevant regulations.
- In the theory test, you will be able to answer questions that require an understanding of the authority pyramid in order to be able to answer correctly.
Road users and responsibility
As a driver, you have a significant moral and legal responsibility to take other road users into account. The requirements placed on you are strict, especially in relation to non-motorized road users, the elderly, children and people with disabilities. Here are some important points to keep in mind:
- Show extra caution towards pedestrians, children, the elderly and people with reduced functional abilities.
- Non-motorized road users such as pedestrians, cyclists, kickers, skiers are particularly vulnerable in the event of traffic accidents and collisions.
- Pay particular attention to motorcycles, mopeds and bicycles.
- When passing children, school patrols, the blind, or people with disabilities, keep a low speed and, if necessary, stop immediately.
- Show consideration for cyclists, keep a good distance, do not drive in the cycle lane and be prepared that not all cyclists know the traffic rules.
- The blind spots are areas you cannot see in the mirrors from the driver's seat, check them when changing lanes.
- Show great caution towards pedestrians in traffic. Provide sufficient space, give way for pedestrians at intersections, pedestrian crossings and at tram stops.
- For some special road users, such as the blind and disabled, do everything you can to let them out and reduce the risk of accidents.
- When passing children who are on or near the road, keep a low speed and stop immediately if necessary. Children are impulsive and do not have the same ability to judge distance and speed as adults.
- Show extra consideration for the elderly and disabled who may have impaired vision, hearing and reduced mobility.
- Passing horses must be done carefully, reduce speed, make sure that horse and rider have spotted you and avoid sudden movements.
- Pay particular attention to motorcycles and mopeds. They are less visible in traffic and can easily be overlooked at junctions and bends.
See the rules for safe driving
Effective use of vision is essential for safe driving. About 90% of the information we gather in traffic comes through our eyes. It is important to be clear and act in good time so that other road users can interpret your behavior correctly. Here are the important points:
- Look ahead to detect situations early. This stabilizes the car's course and makes it easier to position the car correctly on the road.
- Move your gaze to get a full view. This is particularly important at higher speeds and in complex traffic situations. Take regular glances in your mirrors and be aware of blind spots before turning or changing lanes.
- Take an overview to understand the entire traffic situation and anticipate developments. Ideally, you should be able to predict what will happen in the next 10 seconds.
- Always look for a way out or alternative solution to be prepared for unforeseen events. If you discover potential dangers, take emergency braking.
- Make sure you are seen and understood. Position yourself correctly in the lane in good time and adjust your speed. This helps other road users understand what you plan to do.
Interaction in traffic
Interaction in traffic requires a good understanding of the behavior of others, clear signaling and a clear choice of speed and position on the road. Good interaction contributes to better accessibility and safer driving.
- Road users' signaling, speed and location can help to understand their intentions and actions.
- The car's flashing and brake lights are primary signals, while the choice of speed and location also play an important role in traffic.
- Good interaction can improve accessibility, while poor interaction can reduce it.
- Fart can provide information to other road users; slowing down before intersections and roundabouts may indicate plans to turn or comply with the right of way.
- Location in the lane can also provide important information; for example, it may signal plans to turn at an upcoming intersection.
- Signing is required when turning and other significant changes to the vehicle's location; early and clear signaling can contribute to better understanding among fellow road users.
- Signals such as horns or light horns can be used to warn of dangerous situations, but unnecessary use is prohibited.
Speed and speed limits
Speed and speed limits are important parts of the Road Traffic Act and traffic regulations. General speed limits are 50 km/h in densely built-up areas and 80 km/h outside densely built-up areas, but you must always adapt your speed to the conditions. Signage can change speed limits, and in some situations there are specific rules about speed that you must follow.
- General speed limits are 50 km/h in densely built-up areas and 80 km/h outside densely built-up areas.
- It is important to adjust your speed according to the location, road, visibility and traffic conditions to avoid danger and inconvenience to others.
- Drivers must be able to stop on the stretch of road that is clear, and in front of any foreseeable obstacle.
- The Speed limit sign applies on the road on which it is placed and until the speed limit is changed by another sign.
- The sign End of special speed limit means that the new speed limit is 80 km/h.
- Zone signs apply on all roads until they are lifted, the general speed limit is 50 km/h when you pass the sign "End of speed limit zone".
- Danger signs inform about potential dangers and normally require you to adjust your speed.
- Special speed rules apply when passing children, school patrols, visually impaired or blind people, people with a disability or illness that hinders them in traffic, and trams/buses that have stopped or are about to stop at a stop.
- Other important special rules: On pedestrian streets or street gardens, the speed limit is walking speed (5-10 km/h) and if you are driving with a trailer, you cannot legally drive faster than 80 km/h, except if you get a Tempo 100 approval for a trailer or caravan.
Road grip depends on the car's kinetic energy and the grip between the tire and the ground. Choosing good tire equipment and keeping a reasonable speed based on the surface and weather conditions can optimize road grip.
- The car's kinetic energy is affected by the vehicle's speed and weight. Higher kinetic energy results in poorer grip during cornering or braking with a heavy car at high speed.
- The grip between the tire and the ground depends on the quality of the tires and the driving surface. Poor road grip can, for example, occur on icy roads around zero degrees with worn-out summer tyres.
- The kinetic energy changes with the square of the change in speed. This means that if you double the speed, the kinetic energy quadruples, which requires four times as much energy to stop the car.
- Road grip is important when turning and changing speed. It is necessary to reduce speed before turning to avoid loss of traction. Loss of traction can cause the wheels to spin or lock, preventing the vehicle from steering.
- In winter conditions, road grip can be reduced to 1/4 of what is normal, even with good winter tyres. Careful driving and testing of the surface is recommended.
- Hydroplaning can occur on wet roads at high speeds, causing you to lose control of the vehicle.
Braking and braking distances
Braking and braking distances are all about being aware of the forces involved in turning when you drive and how much the braking distance increases with just a small increase in speed. Being able to calculate changes in reaction distance and braking distance in meters is important, even if road users are not expected to calculate this continuously while driving. Understanding the concepts of reaction distance, braking distance and stopping distance is also central.
- Detecting a hazard requires time, known as inattention time. The distance covered in this period is called the length of inattention.
- Reaction time is the time it takes from when you discover a danger until you decide to act. The corresponding distance is called the reaction length.
- The braking distance is the distance covered from the time you start to brake until the car has stopped.
- The stopping distance is the sum of the reaction distance and the braking distance.
- Calculation of the reaction distance and braking distance depends on several factors such as speed, surface, road, weight and the quality of the brakes.
- The reaction length increases with the speed change, while the braking distance increases with the square of the speed change.
Obligation to give way
This section explains the concept of giving way in traffic. Obligation to give way is a rule that requires you to give way to other road users under certain conditions. The rules on the right of way are essential to maintain traffic flow and safety.
- Obligation to yield means that you must avoid obstructing or disturbing road users for whom you have an obligation to yield.
- You must clearly show that you will comply with the obligation to give way, for example by slowing down in good time.
- The main rule for giving way is the right-hand rule, which means that you must normally give way to traffic from the right.
- If you are coming from a car park, private road, street yard or similar, you have to give way to all other road users.
- On roads with a speed limit of 60 km/h or less, you are obliged to give way to a bus when the driver signals for the bus to leave the stop.
- When changing lanes, you are obliged to give way to the traffic in the lane you are entering.
- You also have to give way when coming from places such as car parks, bus stops, squares, estates, petrol stations, pedestrian streets and street gardens.
- Drivers are obliged to give way to pedestrians in certain situations, for example at pedestrian crossings, when turning, and when crossing footpaths or pavements.
- Emergency vehicles with lit blue lights, trams and trains must be given the right of way.
- There are several signs that indicate the right of way, including "give way" and "stop", which require you to give way to road users coming from both the right and left, or that you make a complete stop before the intersection, respectively.
Lane and Location on the road
Having the correct position in the roadway provides good information to other road users and helps to avoid conflicts. Here are some key points to remember:
- Vehicles must be driven on the right side of the road, unless there are obstacles.
- The vehicle must be kept well within the lane, and you are allowed to use the entire lane.
- On a carriageway with two or more lanes, the right lane must be used when the traffic rules do not require or permit the use of the left lane.
- When turning, you must lie down on the side you are going to turn to.
- Bicycles and other non-motorized vehicles can be driven on the right-hand side of the road.
- The distance to the driver in front must be such that there is no risk of collision if the driver in front slows down or stops.
- On slippery roads, at high speed or with heavier vehicles behind, you should increase the distance.
- On roads with several lanes in the same direction, the right lane should be used unless signage or road markings require or permit the use of other lanes.
- It is important to be aware that different rules may apply in one-way streets.
Driving in the city: Crossroads
An intersection is a place where a road crosses or flows into another road. Location and signals are important aspects when approaching an intersection to ensure safe and efficient traffic flow.
- The main rule for positioning states that you should lie on the right if you are going right, and on the left if you are going left. If you are going straight ahead, stay in the middle of your lane, and in the right lane if there are multiple lanes in the same direction.
- In areas with heavy traffic, traffic is often regulated through traffic lights. In the case of a flashing yellow light or when the traffic light is out of order, the signage or the general right-of-way rules apply.
- The arrow signal applies to those who want to drive in the direction the arrow shows. If you have to turn in the direction of the arrow signal, you are not obliged to give way to anyone.
- When turning left at an intersection, inform other road users by signaling, position yourself towards the center of the roadway and reduce your speed well in advance of turning. Pay particular attention to any vehicles behind the first oncoming car.
- Signal is used to provide information to other road users. Signs are turn signals and brake lights. Signaling means using the car's horn or light horn. Signal is only used to warn or avert danger.
- When turning right at a junction, inform other road users by giving signs, position yourself towards the shoulder/kerb and reduce your speed well in advance of turning. Be sure to make the right turn so tight that you do not obstruct oncoming traffic in the road you are turning into.
Roundabouts are intersections where you must give clear signals to other road users and comply with the obligation to give way. Understanding and using signs and signals as well as consideration of blind spots are essential. There are also specific rules for driving straight ahead, to the right and to the left in a roundabout, depending on the number of lanes in the direction of travel.
- Signal in good time and position yourself correctly before the roundabout.
- The duty to give way means that you must not obstruct or disrupt traffic in the roundabout.
- When driving in several lanes, you are obliged to give way when changing lanes and moving sideways.
- Flashers and brake lights are used to inform other road users of your actions.
- Horns and light horns are used to warn or avert danger.
- The blind spot, areas around the vehicle that you cannot see in the mirrors, must be taken into account.
- When driving straight ahead, stay to the right in your own lane, comply with the obligation to give way, enter the roundabout when it is safe, and put on your turn signals on the right after the first exit.
- When driving on the right, stay in the right lane, turn on your indicators in good time, enter the roundabout when it is safe, and be aware of pedestrians when exiting.
- When driving on the left, stay in the left lane, turn on your indicators in good time, enter the roundabout when it is safe, change to the right lane after the second last exit, and be aware of pedestrians when exiting.
Reversing and turning: Important rules and recommendations
Reversing and turning have the right of way for all other road users, require extra attention especially in relation to small and unpredictable children, and are strictly regulated on roads such as motorways and motorways.
- It is forbidden to reverse or turn if there is a risk of injury and you cannot get help from another person who has a full overview of the situation.
- Reversing and turning are prohibited on motorways and motorways or on access or exit roads to these.
- Keep a low speed when reversing.
- Be aware that the front of the car moves sideways when you reverse and turn.
- Blind spots, especially behind the car, can hide small children. Carry out an additional check around the car if you are unsure.
- Motorways and motorways are designed for high speeds and large traffic flow, but have different requirements for design and level of safety.
- To avoid blind spots, you simply have to look around.
- U-turns should be made without reversing where practicable, and are prohibited on motorways, motor traffic roads and places with no-turn signs.
Stop and parking
Public stops and parking are governed by traffic rules and signage. A stop is defined as any setting aside of a vehicle, while parking is when the driver leaves it, except for a short stop for alighting or boarding or unloading or loading. It is important to understand the rules for stopping and parking, as well as the basic rules for traffic in order to avoid creating dangerous situations or disrupting the flow of traffic.
- A stop is not considered parking. It is therefore legal to stop to drop off a passenger even where parking is prohibited.
- A traffic stop is a natural stop as a result of the traffic situation, such as when you have to give way, red lights, queues, etc.
- Stopping is prohibited in unclear places, at road junctions or closer than 5 meters from the junction, in whole or in part on pavements, footpaths or cycle paths, on footpaths or cycle crossings, on motorways and motor traffic roads, near level crossings, in public transport lanes, in cycle lanes, on road extensions for stopping places .
- Motorways and motorways have special requirements and rules. Properties along these roads must not have direct access to the road.
- Parking is prohibited in front of entrances or exits, in meeting places across the entire width of the road, in pedestrian streets, in street gardens except for special spaces, in the carriageway on the right-of-way with a higher speed limit than 50 km/h.
- Parking on the left side of the road is permitted, as long as it does not cause danger or obstruct other road users.
- Special signs are used to indicate rules for different types of roads, including pedestrian streets, street yards and driveways.
- Prohibition signs, such as "No Parking", indicate a prohibition on parking on a specific side of the road, but allow a short stop for alighting or boarding or unloading or loading.
- "Restricted parking" signs indicate that parking is permitted for a specified period.
- "Parking zone" signs indicate that parking is permitted on both sides of the road throughout the zone, unless otherwise indicated by additional signs.
- "End of parking zone" marks the end of a parking zone.
Motorway and Motorway
Motorways are intended for high-speed driving and to increase traffic capacity, and they are designed with specific requirements and rules for use. Motorway roads are also designed for driving at relatively high speeds, but do not meet the same standards as motorways.
- Motorways have physically separated driving directions, at least two lanes in each direction, unplanned intersections and no direct access to properties along the road. Entry and exit takes place either at the start or end point, or via exit and access ramps.
- Motorway regulations require that all traffic must take place with vehicles that can legally drive at least 40 km/h. Mopeds, pedestrians and cyclists are prohibited on the motorway, and it is forbidden to turn, reverse, stop or park.
- Motor traffic roads are generally of higher quality, but do not necessarily have more than one lane in each direction or center dividers. There is also no direct access to the road.
- The same traffic rules as for motorways also apply for the most part to motorways.
- Speed bumps and exit lanes are used on both motorways and motorways to improve traffic flow and safety. The merging rule applies to speed increase lanes, and drivers must adapt their speed to the traffic in the lane they are entering.
- When narrowing to fewer lanes by merging, the rule of alternating continued driving without unnecessary obstruction or disturbance applies.
The right-of-way is designed to ensure the flow of traffic and is recognized by the signs Right-of-way and End of right-of-way. If you are driving on a right-of-way, drivers from a side road or a crossing road are required to give way. When you are going out onto a right-of-way, this means that you must not obstruct or disturb road users on the right-of-way.
- It is forbidden to park on the right-of-way if the speed limit is higher than 50 km/h.
- Overtaking just before or at an intersection is permitted on the right-of-way.
- In rush hour traffic, such as driving on a right-of-way, you should show a willingness to cooperate and let a road user pass from a side road.
- When you are entering a right-of-way, be aware that drivers on the crossing road are allowed to overtake at the intersection. This means that even if you are going to turn right at the intersection, you must check both sides to make sure it is clear before pulling into the driveway.
Understanding the dangers and routines for overtaking is essential. Passing on the left is normally permitted. In some situations, however, it is permitted to drive past on the right.
- You can pass on the right if the driver in front is going left and waiting for a clear lane.
- You can drive past in the right lane when there is heavy traffic in both lanes in the same direction, if this follows the flow of traffic.
- Overtaking is prohibited when visibility is obstructed, at pedestrian crossings with partially obstructed visibility, when signs prohibit overtaking and when road markings prohibit it.
- At intersections, the general rule is that overtaking is prohibited, but there are exceptions. You can drive past when the traffic on the crossing road is required to give way by a public traffic sign, there are two or more lanes in the direction of travel, the leading driver turns left or the traffic at the intersection is regulated by traffic lights or the police.
- Before overtaking, make sure that overtaking is permitted, the road is clear of oncoming traffic, the driver in front is not showing signs of changing lanes, vehicles behind have not initiated an overtaking, and that you will be able to quickly rejoin the flow of traffic if necessary .
- Road markings, such as lane lines, warning lines and barrier lines, provide information about overtaking.
- When you are about to overtake, you must signal with your flashing lights, check your mirrors and blind spot, keep a safe distance, signal that you want to end the overtaking, and turn back into your own lane when you can see the front of the car you have passed in the center mirror.
- When you are overtaken, you are obliged to make overtaking as safe as possible: keep well to the right, do not increase your speed, reduce your speed or swerve to the side if this becomes necessary, and use your mirrors.
- The overtaking distance is the distance you cover when you overtake. How many meters the overtaking distance will be depends on many factors, including your relative speed in relation to the person you are passing.
Driving in the dark can be challenging due to limitations in the sense of sight. It is important to be aware of the risks of driving in the dark and how to improve safety on the road.
- The risk of accidents, including hitting pedestrians, is higher in the dark than in daylight.
- What you see in the dark depends on the lighting conditions, the reflection from objects, and the ability of your own eyes to adapt to the dark.
- Clothes reflect light differently - dark clothes reflect little light (5–10%), light clothes can act as a reflector and reflect up to 80% of the light, while a good reflector reflects almost all the light.
- Speed adapted to the conditions is essential for safe driving in the dark.
- The eye gradually adapts to the dark, but strong light can impair night vision and it takes around 30 minutes for the eye to restore optimal dark vision.
- It is important to be aware that your vision is impaired when you drive from daylight into a dark tunnel or into a dark parking garage, come from a place with a lot of light, or have been dazzled by the lights of oncoming vehicles.
- When stopping or parking in the dark, the car's parking lights must be on.
- Correct use of the car's lights is essential in the dark. Use high beam when possible, but switch to dipped beam when you risk dazzling other road users.
- When two cars meet on a road in the dark, both drivers should switch from high beam to low beam, slow down, look along the right side of the road, and switch back to high beam approx. two car lengths before meeting.
- Overtaking in the dark is extra risky. When overtaking in the dark, you must, among other things, switch to dipped beam when the main beam begins to illuminate the car in front, and switch back to main beam again when you are approx. two car lengths behind the car in front.
Driving on the highway: Tunnel driving
Tunneling involves potential dangers that require knowledge and understanding. It is crucial to know how to act in an accident situation in a tunnel. Safety measures include driving carefully, paying attention to road signs and the correct use of equipment such as emergency telephones and fire extinguishers.
- Visibility can be poor in tunnels, and it can also be slippery.
- Animals such as sheep, goats and cows can seek shelter in the tunnel openings.
- Speed reduction is recommended when approaching a tunnel.
- Be prepared to demist the windshield.
- Overtaking in the tunnel should be avoided, unless there are several lanes in the same direction.
- Use high beam whenever possible without dazzling other road users.
- Do not drive into a tunnel that is closed with a barrier or red light.
- Keep track of the nearest escape route, location of emergency telephones and fire extinguishers.
- In the event of an engine stop or puncture, drive into the nearest emergency pocket if possible, put on a reflective vest and find the nearest emergency telephone.
- Fire extinguishers in the tunnel trigger the fire alarm when in use.
- If you notice a queue forming in the tunnel, keep a good distance to the car in front so that you can turn if necessary.
Level crossings, where the road and train or tram tracks cross at the same level, can pose a risk. Therefore, many are secured with barriers/gates, light signals and sound signals, and clearly signposted to warn road users in good time. Despite the fact that accidents are rare, the consequences are often serious when they first occur. It is therefore essential to follow all safety instructions and signage at level crossings.
- Booms or gates, light signals and sound signals are typical safety mechanisms at level crossings.
- Danger signs warn of a level crossing, and provide information on whether it is secured with a barrier or gate.
- Distance signs warn how far there is to the level crossing, which helps road users to prepare.
- Light signals are used at level crossings with a red light indicating a stop, while a white light allows passage.
- Sound signals are also present at some level crossings, and sound when the red light flashes.
- Passing a level crossing requires you to follow the signs, adjust your speed, and always look before crossing, even when the barrier is up and the white light is flashing.
- It is forbidden to stop or park less than 5 meters from a level crossing to avoid reducing the visibility of other road users.
When you drive abroad with a Norwegian car, it is important to be aware that there are differences in the traffic rules and conditions compared to Norway. A nationality mark is required if it is not found on the number plate, and insurance valid internationally is essential. In addition, the accident risk is often higher than in Norway.
- The car must be marked with a nationality mark, and it is a good idea to check that your insurance is also valid outside Norway.
- Traffic rules can vary, including the use of white lines to distinguish between oncoming traffic, different speed limits, rules for giving way, daytime running lights, and drink-driving rules.
- On high-speed roads, cars can come very fast, so be especially careful when changing lanes.
- In some countries, such as the UK, Australia, Japan, Thailand, Pakistan, Indonesia, and India, driving is on the left side of the road, which can reduce your view of oncoming traffic if you drive with the steering wheel on the left.
Traffic accidents and the environment
If you witness or are involved in a traffic accident, you have both a legal and ethical duty to help, including securing the scene and providing first aid. You risk criminal penalties, including loss of driving privileges, if you fail to help. In addition, you must be aware of specific hazards, such as vehicles transporting dangerous goods.
- It is necessary to secure the site of the injury to avoid further accidents. Place warning triangles correctly and park your car with the warning lights on, if possible.
- If someone is injured, you must get an overview of the situation and provide first aid. Call 113 if you have a phone available.
- Extra caution is required if one of the vehicles involved has orange plates, indicating that it is carrying dangerous goods.
- Everyone involved in a traffic accident has a duty to give their name and address to each other, and to the police if they ask. If you drive a car that you do not own, you must state the owner's name and address.
- You have a duty to report to the police if the accident has resulted in personal injury, or if there is no one present who can look after the interests of the injured party.
- Good documentation can help clarify the question of guilt. Use an accident report and write down what happened, and seek witnesses if possible.
The first aid you can give in the event of a car accident is of great importance. It is crucial to assess the injured person's condition, to listen to what they say about their own condition, and to decide what you can do based on this information.
- Find out if the injured person is conscious, has a clear airway and is breathing normally. Examine visible damage, skin color and temperature.
- Ask the injured person about pain and possibly what kind of pain it is. There may also be other things that feel abnormal.
- If the person is unconscious, try to wake them up. If this fails, ensure the person has a clear airway by tilting their head back and placing them in a side-lying position if breathing appears normal. If they are unconscious and not breathing or gasping, short and irregular breaths, perform CPR immediately.
- If an unconscious person is wearing a helmet, remove the helmet to avoid the risk of choking on blood or vomit. Support the person's neck and carefully remove the helmet.
- Perform CPR during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. This involves a series of chest compressions and breaths in response to a cardiac arrest.
- To manage bleeding, if the wound is small and clear with moderate bleeding, clean and bandage the wound. In case of arterial bleeding, press hard and firmly on the wound and use a pressure bandage if possible. Elevate the site of injury higher than the heart.
- Internal bleeding can be difficult to detect. Symptoms can be that the injured person is pale, has clammy and cold skin, and reduced consciousness. Make sure the airway is clear and place the person in the side position.
- To manage circulatory failure or shock, place the person in the lateral position and perform CPR immediately if cardiac arrest occurs.
- Keep the injured person dry and warm to prevent hypothermia, and do not move the person unless absolutely necessary to avoid worsening potential back and neck injuries.
Statistics and accidents
Road safety has increased considerably in recent decades. The number of traffic deaths has been halved over the past 10 years and in 2020 there were under 100 traffic fatalities for the first time since 1947. However, there is still important work to be done, as even one death is one too many. This is the idea behind the authorities' "zero vision". Traffic accident statistics have also changed over time, with a decrease in accidents involving young drivers and an increase in accidents involving older drivers and male drivers driving at high speed or under the influence of alcohol. Increased focus on traffic education, modern safety technology in cars and changes in driving patterns have all contributed to the decrease in accidents. Collision accidents and downhill accidents are the most common types of accidents, with lack of driving skills, high speed, fatigue and intoxication as the most important contributing factors.
- The number of people killed in traffic in Norway has been halved in the last 10 years.
- The zero vision is the authorities' goal: no deaths or serious injuries in traffic.
- Male drivers, especially those driving at high speed or under the influence of alcohol, have a higher risk of being killed in traffic.
- Older drivers also have a higher risk of serious accidents.
- A focus on knowledge and attitudes in traffic education has led to fewer accidents among young drivers.
- Safety technology in modern cars, stricter rules for new drivers and less weekend driving have contributed to the decline in traffic accidents.
- Collision accidents and downhill accidents are the most common types of accidents, and the biggest contributing factors are lack of driving skills, high speed, fatigue and intoxication.
Traffic accidents and the environment
To contribute to a better environment, there are several measures motorists can take. Some of these include choosing tyres, maintaining the vehicle, as well as changes in driving technique and routines. A focus on environmentally friendly driving also has the potential to increase safety and reduce costs.
- Drive with studless tires to reduce asphalt dust.
- Use an engine heater to reduce emissions when starting from cold.
- Keep the car well maintained to reduce emissions.
- Consider electric car to avoid fuel emissions.
- Avoid small, unnecessary trips, as the car pollutes most before the engine is properly warm.
- Plan the route and time for driving to avoid queues.
- "Skip" gear to save fuel.
- Use the highest possible gear that the car can handle to minimize fuel consumption.
- Maintain a steady speed after certain speed increases to minimize fuel consumption.
- Use the terrain to save fuel by letting off the gas on downhills and before hilltops.
- Plan your route to avoid long detours and rush hour traffic.